To celebrate #NationalBookLoversDay, Iâ€™ve decided to write a follow-up blog to my previous post, A Taste of Training. As discussed in my first blog post, one of the activities I am involved with as a Preventive Conservator here at the British Library is training. In this post, Iâ€™d like to share some of the information we deliver when providing book handling training sessions, focusing on various binding styles and the tools you can use to help prevent damage. A great way to show your love for books is to handle them with care!
Risks to books
Books may be vulnerable for a number of reasons. A book might be constructed from materials which are poor quality or the book may have been housed in less-than-ideal storage or environmental conditions. The format of the book itself can also cause damage, so itâ€™s important to know how to handle different types of books and account for each formatâ€™s weaknesses.
Book supports and weights
Book supports are a great way to minimise damage when using a book. They restrict the opening angle of a book and provide support while the book is being used. This helps to prevent damage to the spine and boards. Book supports commonly come in the form of foam wedges, but you can also find other styles, including cradles with cushions and cushions on their own.
Weights are another useful tool when using books. Books are, generally speaking, not made to open flat, which can result in pages that want to spring upwards. Rather than pressing down on the pages and potentially causing damage, itâ€™s better to gently lay a weight on the page. Just take care not to place the weights directly on any areas with text or imagesâ€”these areas may be fragile and susceptible to damage.
From left to right: A book on foam supports, a cradle with a cushion, and a cushion, with snake weights preventing the pages from springing upwards.
Now letâ€™s discuss specific binding styles.
Flexible tight back books
A flexible tight back is a book which has the covering material (often leather) adhered directly to the spine. This means that the covering material flexes as the book is opened and closed. This can cause cracking along the spine, and will worsen as the leather and paper degrade.
Left: Vertical cracking along the spine of a rigid tight back book (please note that this image, along with all others, shows a sample book and not a collection item; books should not normally be placed on their foredge). Right: A partially bound flexible tight back with minimal lining between the text block and the leather covering.
When using a flexible tight back book, place the boards on foam wedges. You may also find it beneficial to use a spine support piece--a thin strip of foam placed in the centre to help support the fragile spine, as seen below.
A flexible tight back book on foam book supports with spine support piece.
Rigid tight back
A rigid tight back book has more material covering the spine, which makes the spine rigid and more robust. This rigid spine causes the book to have a restricted opening, and the pages of the book will spring upward when opened. The rigid spine can also cause a weakness in the joint--the area where the book boards meet the spine--and may lead to the boards detaching.
Left: Whilst not a rigid tight back, this image does show a book with its boards detachedâ€”this type of damage is common with rigid tight back books. Right: A partially bound rigid tight back showing a more built up spine: book board is present between the text block and leather, highlighted in the white square.
Rigid tight back books do not need a spine support piece. Instead, the focus should be on supporting the boards with wedges and leaving space in the centre for the spine.
A rigid tight back book on foam book supports; note the pages springing up rather than lying flat.
Now letâ€™s get into a couple of the more common types of bindings, which everyone is likely to have on their bookshelf. A case binding, or hardback book, features a textblock which is adhered to the case (or boards) by pasting a piece of paper to the textblock and the case. Over time, the case can split away from the textblock, causing pages and/or the textblock to come loose, and possibly detach completely. To prevent damage to your hardbacks, we recommend restricting the opening angle so as to not cause too much strain to that single piece of paper holding the textblock to the case.
Left: Showing the piece of paper adhering the textblock to the case. Right: The text block has split from the case, causing some pages to detach and the textblock as a whole to be loose.
Perfect bindings, or paperback books, are made by glueing the textblock directly to the cover. They are not made to be long-lasting, and as a result, are often made from poor quality materials. As the adhesive fails, pages will detach and come loose. Paperback books are also not very flexible, so they wonâ€™t open well. To keep your paperbacks in the best condition possible, restrict the opening angle so youâ€™re not causing a stress point where the adhesive can fail easily.
Left and right: The pages have detached from the cover of this book.
Finally, Iâ€™d like to share some general best practice tips to help you safely handle your books:
- Ensure your hands are clean and dry when handling books
- Be aware of long jewellery or loose clothing which can catch
- Lift books instead of sliding or dragging them
- Donâ€™t carry too many books at one time
- Handle your books with care and be sure to take your time
If youâ€™re using our reading rooms and do not see any book supports or weights around, simply ask Reading Room staff and they will provide them for you. The more time you take to ensure youâ€™re using best practice when handling books, the longer your favourite books will survive!