THE BRITISH LIBRARY

Digital scholarship blog

Enabling innovative research with British Library digital collections

Introduction

Tracking exciting developments at the intersection of libraries, scholarship and technology. Read more

14 May 2018

Seeing British Library collections through a digital lens

Digital Curator Mia Ridge writes: in this guest post, Dr Giles Bergel describes some experiments with the Library's digitised images...

The University of Oxford’s Visual Geometry Group has been working with a number of British Library curators to apply computer vision technology to their collections. On April 5 of this year I was invited by BL Digital Curator Dr. Mia Ridge to St. Pancras to showcase some of this work and to give curators the opportunity to try the tools out for themselves.  

Image1
Visual Geometry’s VISE tool matching two identical images from separate books digitised for the British Library’s Two Centuries of Indian Print project.

Computer vision - the extraction of meaning from images - has made considerable strides in recent years, particularly through the application of so-called ‘deep learning’ to large datasets. Cultural collections provide some of the most interesting test-cases for computer vision researchers, due to their complexity; the intensity of interest that researchers bring to them; and to their importance for human well-being. Can computers see collections as humans do? Computer vision is perhaps better regarded as a powerful lens rather than as a substitute for human curation. A computer can search a large collection of images far more quickly than can a single picture researcher: while it will not bring the same contextual understanding to bear on an image, it has the advantage of speed and comprehensiveness. Sometimes, a computer vision system can surprise the researcher by suggesting similarities that weren’t readily apparent.

As a relatively new technology, computer vision attracts legitimate concerns about privacy, ethics and fairness. By making its state of the art tools freely available, Visual Geometry hope to encourage experimentation and responsible use, and to enlist users to help determine what they can and cannot do. Cultural collections provide a searching test-case for the state of the art, due to their diversity as media (prints, paintings, stamped images, photographs, film and more) each of which invite different responses. One BL curator made a telling point by searching the BBC News collection with the term 'football': the system was presented with images previously tagged with that word that related to American, Gaelic, Rugby and Association football. Although inconclusive due to lack of sufficiently specific training data, the test asked whether a computer could (or should) pick the most popular instances; attempt to generalise across multiple meanings; or discern separate usages. Despite increases in processing power and in software methods, computers' ability to generalise; to extract semantic meaning from images or texts; and to cope with overlapping or ambiguous concepts remains very basic.  

Other tests with BL images have been more immediately successful. Visual Geometry's Traherne tool, developed originally to detect differences in typesetting in early printed books, worked well with many materials that exhibit small differences, such as postage stamps or doctored photographs. Visual Geometry's Image Search Engine (VISE) has shown itself capable of retrieving matching illustrations in books digitised for the Library's Indian Print project, as well as certain bookbinding features, or popular printed ballads. Some years ago Visual Geometry produced a search interface for the Library's 1 Million Images release. A collaboration between the Library's Endangered Archives programme and Oxford researcher David Zeitlyn on the archive of Cameroonian studio photographer Jacques Toussele employed facial recognition as well as pattern detection. VGG's facial recognition software works on video (BBC News, for example) as well as still photographs and art, and is soon to be freely released to join other tools under the banner of the Seebibyte Project.    

I'll be returning to the Library in June to help curators explore using the tools with their own images. For more information on the work of Visual Geometry on cultural collections, subscribe to the project's Google Group or contact Giles Bergel.      

Dr. Giles Bergel is a digital humanist based in the Visual Geometry Group in the Department of Engineering Science at the University of Oxford.  

The event was supported by the Seebibyte project under an EPSRC Programme Grant EP/M013774/1

 

11 May 2018

Digital Conversations @BL: Empowering Technologies

As part of our Digital Conversations series, we invite you to join us for an evening discussing how Indigenous communities are using new technologies to preserve and promote their culture; this takes place on Tuesday 22 May, 18:30 - 20:30, in the British Library Knowledge Centre, to book a ticket go here.

Various topics and examples of how digital platforms are used by communities across the world will be covered. Including crowdfunding, crowdsourcing, apps, Etsy, videogames and social media.  Chaired by Niamh Moore our panel includes the following speakers:

 

 

  • Gloria O’Neill, President and Chief Executive Officer of Cook Inlet Tribal Council and Upper One Games, the first indigenous-owned video game developer and publisher in the United States, is here in person to discuss BAFTA winning game Never Alone (Kisima InÅ‹itchuÅ‹a), which shares Alaska Native culture and values with the world at large

 

  • Felicity Wright who has over twenty years experience in working with non-profit Aboriginal-owned social enterprises. Currently she works for Injalak Arts in Gunbalanya, Australia, who sell their art and craft work to global audiences from their Etsy store. This will be a recorded presentation introduced by Jo Pilcher, University of Brighton, whose PhD research is about Aboriginal Australian textile production in the Northern Terrority

 

  • Michael Wynne, Digital Applications Librarian, will give an overview of Mukurtu, a free, mobile, and open source content management system platform, which is built with indigenous communities

We are looking forward to a fascinating and lively discussion, so please prepare your questions for the panel! If you can't attend in person, please follow #BLdigital for the twitter stream during the event.

image from http://s3.amazonaws.com/feather-files-aviary-prod-us-east-1/98739f1160a9458db215cec49fb033ee/2018-05-11/8f26b0d7cd344044954d850140fe98a1.png
Game play scene from Never Alone featuring the owl man

This event is sponsored by the Eccles Centre for American Studies at the British Library. It will include a combination of in-person, Skype and pre-recorded presentations. This post is by Digital Curator Stella Wisdom, on twitter as @miss_wisdom.

08 May 2018

The Italian Academies database – now available in XML

Dr Mia Ridge writes: in 2017, we made XML and image files from a four-year, AHRC-funded project: The Italian Academies 1525-1700 available through the Library's open data portal. The original data structure was quite complex, so we would be curious to hear feedback from anyone reusing the converted form for research or visualisations.

In this post, Dr Lisa Sampson, Reader in Early Modern Italian Studies at UCL, and Dr Jane Everson, Emeritus Professor of Italian literature, RHUL, provide further information about the project...

New research opportunities for students of Renaissance and Baroque culture! The Italian Academies database is now available for download. It's in a format called XML which represents the original structure of the database.

This dedicated database results from an eight-year project, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council UK, and provides a wealth of information on the Italian learned academies. Around 800 such institutions flourished across the peninsula over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, making major contributions to the cultural and scientific debates and innovations of the period, as well as forming intellectual networks across Europe. This database lists a total of 587 Academies from Venice, Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, Siena, Rome, Naples, and towns and cities in southern Italy and Sicily active in the period 1525-1700. Also listed are more than 7,000 members of one or more academies (including major figures like Galileo, as well as women and artists), and almost 1,000 printed works connected with academies held in the British Library. The database therefore provides an essential starting point for research into early modern culture in Italy and beyond. It is also an invitation to further scholarship and data collection, as these totals constitute only a fraction of the data relating to the Academies.

Terracina
Laura Terracina, nicknamed Febea, of the Accademia degli Incogniti, Naples

The database is designed to permit searches from many different perspectives and to allow easy searching across categories. In addition to the three principal fields – Academies, People, Books – searches can be conducted by title keyword, printer, illustrator, dedicatee, censor, language, gender, nationality among others. The database also lists and illustrates the mottoes and emblems of the Academies (where known) and similarly of individual academy members. Illustrations from the books entered in the database include frontispieces, colophons, and images from within texts.

Intronati emblem
Emblem of the Accademia degli Intronati, Siena


The database thus aims to promote research on the Italian Academies in disciplines ranging from literature and history, through art, science, astronomy, mathematics, printing and publishing, censorship, politics, religion and philosophy.

The Italian Academies project which created this database began in 2006 as a collaboration between the British Library and Royal Holloway University of London, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research council and led by Jane Everson. The objective was the creation of a dedicated resource on the publications and membership of the Italian learned Academies active in the period between 1525 and 1700. The software for the database was designed in-house by the British Library and the first tranche of data was completed in 2009 listing information for academies in four cities (Naples, Siena, Bologna and Padua). A second phase, listing information for many more cities, including in southern Italy and Sicily, developed the database further, between 2010 and 2014, with a major research grant from the AHRC and collaboration with the University of Reading.

The exciting possibilities now opened up by the British Library’s digital data strategy look set to stimulate new research and collaborations by making the records even more widely available, and easily downloadable, in line with Open Access goals. The Italian Academies team is now working to develop the project further with the addition of new data, and the incorporation into a hub of similar resources.

The Italian Academies project team members welcome feedback on the records and on the adoption of the database for new research (contact: www.italianacademies.org).

The original database remains accessible at http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/ItalianAcademies/Default.aspx 

An Introduction to the database, its aims, contents and objectives is available both at this site and at the new digital data site: https://data.bl.uk/iad/

Jane E. Everson, Royal Holloway University of London

Lisa Sampson, University College, London