In the 1880s Leo Tolstoy mainly focused on writing non-fiction; his novella The Kreutzer Sonata is one of the few exceptions. In February 1876 a woman calling herself âSlavyankaâ had written to Tolstoy her thoughts on the appalling situation of women in contemporary Russian society. This was one source of inspiration for the novella. Another was a story told to Tolstoy by a friend who had heard a fellow train traveller talking about his wifeâs infidelity.
When the first draft had been written, a family friend performed Beethovenâs Kreutzer Sonata (Sonata No. 9 in A Major for piano and violin, Op. 47) at Tolstoyâs house in Moscow. Immediately afterwards, Tolstoy suggested that the actor Andreev-Burlak and the artist Ilya Repin, who were present, could help him express the feelings evoked by this music. Tolstoyâs original plan was to have his story read in public with Repinâs visual response to the music in the background, although this performance never took place. It occurs to me that had such a recital happened, we could have think of Tolstoy as one of the founding fathers of conceptual performance art.
Ilya Repinâs picture of Tolstoy and his daughter Alexandra at the piano
Tolstoy continuously reworked the plot of the story and it went through many transformations. In the final version, the protagonist tells his story as part of a conversation on a train concerning marriage, divorce and love. Although he loved his wife at first, he became unhappy with her when she was preoccupied by motherhood, but was also displeased when she started to prevent pregnancies. Nonetheless, having noticed his wifeâs admiration for a violinist, he became consumed with jealousy which led him to kill her. Beethovenâs Kreutzer Sonata triggers all the emotions in the story, as this is what unites the protagonistâs wife with the violinist when they play it together, filling him with rage and misery. He blames the conventions which force people to stay together even after love has turned into hatred, and believes that women and men will never enjoy equal rights as long as men view women as objects of desire. Yet he also claims that women have a form of power over men, since much of society is geared towards womenâs pleasure and wellbeing. Tolstoyâs message is confusing, but is usually interpreted as questioning the institution of marriage and celebrating the ideals of chastity and sexual abstinence.
Draft page of The Kreutzer Sonata, Zweig MS 191
In November 1889, the story was read in public at the publishing house owned by Tolstoyâs friend Chertkov. It made such an impression that, against Tolstoyâs will, the manuscript was copied on the same night. Three days later 300 lithograph copies were already in private circulation in St. Petersburg and many more were created on hectograph machines. In December 1889, rumours that the censors would ban publication were confirmed. Tolstoy had decided in 1879 to renounce his copyright and potential royalties for anything written thereafter, so was relieved that he did not have to deal with a moral dilemma: to allow his wife to support the family by publishing his work commercially or to publish it gratis according to his own principles.
Opening (above) and last two page (below) of a clandestine edition of The Kreutzer Sonata ([St Petersburg?, 1889]) RB.23.b.6954.
In 1890, when it became obvious that The Kreutzer Sonata would not be published in Russia, the Bibliographic Office in Berlin published the story in four languages â Russian, German, French and English â simultaneously. At least two other different English translations, by H. Sutherland Edwards and by Beni R. Tucker, were published in 1890 in England and America respectively.
Above: The Berlin edition of The Kreutzer Sonata (1890) 1608/5228. Below: English translation of The Kreutzer Sonata. (London, 1890) 012589.e.34.
In 1891, Tolstoyâs wife Sofia Andreevna was granted personal permission by Tsar Alexander III to publish the novella in Russia. She did so to prove to herself and others that she had not been hurt by the story, although she admitted in her diaries that it was aimed at her life with Tolstoy, which certainly made her feel uneasy about it. She even wrote a âreplyâ to Tolstoy, a novella Châia vina? (âWhose was the blame?â), not published until 1994.
An almost immediate response to Tolstoyâs ideas on marriage and sexuality came from the German author Dagobert von Gerhardt, known under his pen-name Gerhardt von Amyntor. In 1891 he published his story Die Cis-moll-Sonate in which travellers on a train discuss Tolstoy and his Kreutzer Sonata, and one describes how Tolstoyâs ideas influenced his life in a negative way.
Against The Kreutzer Sonata, by G. von Amyntor in Russian translation: Za pravdu i za chestâ zhenshchiny [For the truth and womenâs honour] (St Petersburg, 1898) 8410.ff.18.
Tolstoyâs son, Lev Lâvovich, also argued with his father in his novella Preliudiia Shopena (âChopin âs Preludeâ). In 1890 Leonard Terry, writing as âMargrave Kenyonâ published a play entitled Madansema, Slave of Love; re Tolstoi, a counter-song to anti-marriage (London, 1890). On the inside cover of the British Library copy there is an inscription: âTolstoi thinks â marriage is a sin (essay in âUniversal Reviewâ, 1890)â. Apart from the title, the play has only a loose connection with Tolstoyâs story. Mrs James Gregorâs novella, like Sofia Andreevnaâs entitled Whose was the blame?, was published in London in 1894 and is subtitled A womanâs version of the Kreutzer Sonata. These are just some examples of contemporary responses to The Kreutzer Sonata.
The Czech composer Leo JanaÄekâs String quartet No. 1, âKreutzer Sonataâ was also inspired by Tolstoyâs story. When he wrote it in 1923, the composerâs own private life was tense and difficult: he had informally divorced his wife, and was passionately in love with Kamila StĂ¶sslovĂĄ, who neither sought nor rejected his devotion. An image of a âtormented and run downâ poor young woman from Tolstoyâs novel was very close to JanĂĄÄekâs heart at that time.
The Kreutzer Sonata remains one of the most popular of Tolstoyâs works and continues to attract new translations and adaptations.
Katya Rogatchevskaia, Lead Curator East European Collections
References / Further reading:
Lawrence Kramer, âTolstoyâs Beethoven, Beethovenâs Tolstoy : the Kreutzer Sonataâ in his collection of essays Critical musicology and the responsibility of response : selected essays (Aldershot, 2006) YC.2008.a.856
EuropĂ€isches Ereignis "Kreutzersonate" : Beethoven - Tolstoj â JanĂĄÄek, Ulrich Steltner âŠ et al. (Jena, 2004) YF.2006.a.12001
Dawn B. Sova, Literature suppressed on sexual grounds (New York, 2006) YC.2007.a.2777.
Alexandra Popoff, Sophia Tolstoy: a biography. (New York, 2010) m10/.18612
The Diaries of Sofia Tolstoy, translated by Cathy Porter. (London, 2010) YC.2011.a.630