THE BRITISH LIBRARY

Maps and views blog

29 January 2014

Celebrating George III: the map king

by Kate Marshall

January 29th sees the anniversary of the death of King George III in 1820.  While the Georgian contribution to society in a myriad of ways is currently being explored through the marvellous British Library exhibition Georgians Revealed: Life, Style and the Making of Modern Britain (Until 11 March 2014), another project is also underway to catalogue and digitise King George III’s personal collection of maps and views.  More information about the project and how you can contribute is available at http://support.bl.uk/Page/King-George-IIIs-Topographical-Collection  

Four cataloguers began the task of recording the treasures of this collection, last catalogued in 1829 with only brief records and lacking much important information, in the latter part of 2013.  Some of their findings so far are recorded here.

Having been tasked with the cataloguing of maps of the Americas and the Spanish Empire from the collection, almost every map examined has revealed something of interest or note, whilst a cursory overview of these regions has revealed a glimpse of the collector and his character.  A few maps in particular have caught my eye thus far:

•    Firstly, and because everyone likes a bit of espionage and subterfuge, I have been struck by the interchangeable role of cartographer and spy.

A fascinating and beautiful manuscript map on vellum, complete with a rather fawning acrostic to James Duke of York, that is signed "J.S. Americanus" – John Scott (1632?-1704) adventurer, spy and, according to his entry in the Dictionary for National Biography, quite the character.

KTOP120.27

PASCATWAY RIVER in NEW ENGLAND by I: S: Maps K.Top 120.27 PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi

Intended for presentation to Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland (and Lord High Admiral), this manuscript map of Placentia in Newfoundland was drawn by Michel de Monsegur who was seemingly lured into the service of Queen Anne by payment.

KTOP119.34
LE PLAN DU PORT DE P. Presenté a Son Altesse Royalle Monseigneur le Prince de Danemark par Michel de Monsegur 1708. Maps K.Top 119.34 PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi

This detailed plan of Quebec was drawn by Patrick Mackellar, a military engineer who had spent time imprisoned in the city by the French before being released on parole to produce a map that would aid the British in their subsequent capture of the city, a pivotal moment during the French and Indian War

KTOP119.99
PLAN of the TOWN of QUEBECK in CANADA enlarged from Bellin's Plan with Additions. Maps K.Top 119.34 PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi


•    Secondly, the collection has revealed a cartographer seemingly not recorded anywhere else.
 

Although this map (Maps K.Top.120.5.2 TAB END.) was published in London, Howard Mitchelson is keen to state his previous American residency (and perhaps his knowledge and authority in matters cartographic, by association).  Neither the British Library nor the Library of Congress catalogues list other maps by Mitchelson and his name does not appear in Tooley’s Dictionary of Mapmakers nor in British Map Engravers by Laurence Worms and Ashley Baynton-Williams. 

KTOP120.5.2
A NEW & CORRECT Map OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, taken from the latest actual surveys; exhibiting a correct view of the location of the different States of the Union. Of the Post Roads, situations, connexions and Distances of the POST OFFICES, COUNTIES, RIVERS, LAKES, PRINCIPAL TOWNS &c. With a general view of UPPER & LOWER CANADA, NEW BRUNSWICK, NEWFOUNDLAND, & LABRADOR. Published by HOWARD MITCHELSON late Resident in the United States. LONDON, July 14, 1809. Maps K.Top 120.5.2.TAB END PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi

KTOP 120.5.2.det
Can anyone else shed any light on this American expat?


•    Thirdly, and this is not just for the carto-bibliophiles amongst us with an eye for detail, some of the printed maps in the collection appear to be previously unrecorded editions or states.  The differences between a copy of a map with text on the back and one from the King’s Topographical Collection with no text, for example, may not seem particularly important, but such detail adds to the “story” and history of the map – when exactly was it printed in this version, in what sequence (was it published first with text or without), by whom was it printed without text and perhaps even for whom was it printed in this “special” format?

This is a well-known and early map of New England that was published in Amsterdam during the so-called “golden age” of Dutch cartography in the early-seventeenth century.  Editions of the map were published in atlases with Latin, French, German, English, Dutch or Spanish text to the back describing the region.  However, this example of the map from the King’s Topographical Collection has no text supporting a theory that perhaps the map was printed and sold separately, in addition to its appearance in well-documented atlases.

KTOP120.9
NOVA ANGLIA NOVVM BELGIVM et VIRGINIA by Johannes Janssonius. Maps K.Top.120.9. PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi

Moll's map was published in London in the early- eighteenth century.  The copperplate from which this map was printed underwent a series of changes throughout its history.  The example of the map in the King’s Topographical Collection has minor variations in the panel of text at lower right that are not seemingly recorded elsewhere. All very interesting in establishing the sequence in which alterations to the printing plate were made!

KTOP119.98
Herman Moll, NEWFOUNDLAND St. LAURENCE BAY, The Fishing Banks, Acadia, and Part of New SCOTLAND.  Maps K.Top.119.98. PUBLIC-DOMAIN-LABELi

KTOP119.98det