UK Web Archive blog

Information from the team at the UK Web Archive, the Library's premier resource of archived UK websites


News and views from the British Library’s web archiving team and guests. Posts about the public UK Web Archive, and since April 2013, about web archiving as part as non-print legal deposit. Editor-in-chief: Peter Webster (Engagement and Liaison Manager). Read more

15 September 2014

Dot Scot: A new domain identity

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As all thoughts turn to Scotland and the Scottish Referendum which is taking place on the 18th of September it seems appropriate to highlight some recent developments in the digital sphere that will impact the Web Archiving Team over the coming months.

New top level domain (TLD) for Scotland
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has released a suite of new top level domains (TLDs) this year. One of these is .scot (live since 15 July 2014) allowing organisations and individuals to create websites and email addresses identifying themselves as Scottish. The new TLD follows a near-decade long campaign by the Dot Scot Registry, a not-for-profit company created to apply for and operate the .scot domain as an online identity for Scots worldwide.

.scot is a community domain meaning anyone can apply for it, however for the first 60 days the domain was only available to launch ‘pioneers’, a cross section of organisations based in Scotland or part of the Scottish diaspora community. The first pioneer website to go live on 15th July was - a Highlands based Internet Service Provider who offer .scot domain registrations. Over 50 pioneers have signed up including the Scottish government, the Scouts in Scotland, Yes Scotland and Better Together.

Scotland beyond Britain
Individuals and groups outside of Scotland have also taken advantage of the new domain with the Louisiana Scots and the Clan Wallace among the first international organisations to launch websites using the new domain ahead of the general launch on 23rd September.

New-borns get a domain name
The Dot Scot Registry has come up with a unique idea to publicise the .scot TLD by reserving a few domain names for any Scottish baby born on 15 July for free. In a press release on their website, the organisation said: ‘It’s taken nine years to get to this point – and we want to celebrate this “birth” in as many ways as possible. So, if you know someone who had a baby in Scotland on 15 July 2014, contact our press team, and we’ll secure their .scot for them … It’s our little way of saying “welcome to the world and the digital future for Scotland.”’.

In the archive
The UK Web Archiving Team are already collecting .scot websites as part of our annual domain crawl along with .london websites, another of the TLDs released by ICANN this year. A phased release of the .cymru and .wales TLDs was launched this month by the UK internet registry, Nominet, with general availability due in March 2015. These websites will also be picked up by the British Library’s annual domain crawl.

Short lived?
One final point to make is that .scot might be superseded if the Scottish referendum on independence succeeds and Scotland were to leave the United Kingdom as it would get its own two letter country code TLD. Let’s see…..

Nicola Bingham, Web Archivist, The British Library

27 August 2014

User driven digital preservation with Interject

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When we archive the web, we want to do our best to ensure that future generations will be able to access the content we have preserved. This isn’t only a matter of keeping the digital files safe and ensuring they don’t get damaged. We also need to worry about the software that is required in order to access those resources.

A Digital Dark Age?
For many years, the spectre of obsolescence and the ensuing digital dark age drove much of the research into digital preservation. However, even back in 2006, Chris Rusbridge was arguing that this concern was overblown, and since at least 2007, David Rosenthal has been arguing that this kind of obsolescence is no longer credible.

What are the risks?
The current consensus among those who care for content seems to have largely (but not universally) shifted away from perceiving obsolescence as the main risk we face. Many of us expect the vast majority of our content to remain accessible for at least one or two decades, and any attempt to predict the future beyond the next twenty years should be taken with a large pinch of salt. In the meantime, we are likely to face much more basic issues concerning the economics of storage, and concerning the need to adopt scalable collection management techniques to ensure the content we have remains safe, discoverable, and is accompanied by the contextual information it depends upon.

This is not to say obsolescence is no risk at all, but rather that the scale of the problem is uncertain. Therefore, in order to know how best to take care of our digital history, we need to find ways of gathering more evidence about this issue.

Understanding our collections
One aspect of this is to analyse the content we have, and try to understand how it has changed over time. Examples of this kind of work include our paper on Formats Over Time (more here), and more recent work on embedding this kind of preservation analysis in our full-text indexing processes so we can explore these issues more readily.

But studying the content can only tell you half the story - for the other half, we need to work out what we mean by obsolescence.

Understanding obsolescence
If there is an open source implementation of a given format, then we might say that format cannot be obsolete. But if 99.9% of the visitors to the web archive are not aware of that fact (and even if they were, would not be able to compile and build the software in order to access the content), is that really an accurate statement? If the members of our designated community can’t open it, then it’s obsolete, whether or not someone somewhere has all the time, skills and resources needed to make it work.

Obsolescence is a user experience problem that ends with frustration. So how can we better understand the needs and capabilities of our users, to enable them to help drive the digital preservation process?

How Interject can help
To this end, and working with the SCAPE Project, we have built a prototype service that is designed to help us find the content that users are having difficulties with, and where possible, to provide alternative ways of accessing that content. This prototype service, called Interject, demonstrates how a mixture of feedback systems and preservation actions can be smoothly integrated into the search infrastructure of the UK Web Archive, by acting as an ‘access helper’ for end users.

ZX Spectrum Software
For example, if you go to our historical search prototype and look for a specific file called ‘lostcave.z80’ you’ll see the Internet Archive has a number of copies of this old ZX Spectrum game but, unless you have an emulator to hand, you won’t be able to use them. However, if you click ‘Use our access helper’, the Interject service will inspect the resource, summarise what we understand about it, and where possible offer transformed versions of that resource. In the case of ‘lostcave.z80’, this includes a full browser-based emulation so that you can actually play the game yourself. (Note that this example was partially inspired by the excellent work on browser-based emulated access being carried out by the Internet Archive).

The Interject service can offer a range of transformation options for a given format. For example, instead of running the emulator in your browser, the service can spin up an emulator in the background, take a screenshot, and then deliver that image back to you, like this:


These simple screenshots are not quite as impressive as the multi-frame GIFs created by Jason Scott’s Screen Shotgun, but they do illustrate the potential a simple web API that transforms content on demand.

Early image formats
As the available development time was relatively short, we were only able to add support for a few ‘difficult’ formats. For example, the X BitMap image format was the first image format on the web. However, despite this early and important role this format and the related X PixMap format (for colour images) are not widely supported today and so may require format conversion in order to enable access. Fortunately, there are a number of open source projects that support these formats, and Interject makes them easy to use. See for example image.xbm, xterm-linux.xpm and this embedded equation image shown below as a more modern PNG:


We also added support for VRML1 and VRML97, two early web-based formats for 3D environments that required a browser plugin to explore. Those plugins are not available for modern browsers, and the formats have been superseded by the X3D format. Unfortunately these formats are not backward compatible with each other, and tool support for VRML1 is quite limited. However, we were able to find suitable tools for all three formats, and using Interject, we are able to take a VRML1 file, and then combine a two format conversions (VRML1-to-VRML97 and VRML97-to-X3D) before passing the result to a browser-based X3D renderer, like this.

The future of Interject
Each format we decide to support adds an additional development and maintenance burden, and so it is not clear how sustainable this approach will be in the long term. This is one of the reasons why Interject is open source, and we would be very happy to receive ideas or contributions from other individuals and organisations.

Letting users lead the way
But even with a limited number of transformation services, the core of this idea is to find ways to listen to our users, so we have some chance of finding out what content is ‘obsolete’ to them. By listening when they ask for help, and by allowing our visitors to decide between the available options, the real needs of our designated communities can be expressed directly to us and so taken into account as part of the preservation planning process.

By Andy Jackson, Web Archiving Technical Lead, The British Library

15 August 2014

Archiving ‘screenshots’

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Since the passing of Legal Deposit legislation in April of 2013 the UK Web Archive has been generating screenshots of the front-pages of each visited website. The manner in which we chose to store these has changed over the course of our activities, from simple JPEG files on disk (a silly idea) to HAR-based records with WARC metadata records (hopefully a less silly idea). What follows is our reasoning behind these choices.

What not to do
When Legal Deposit legislation passed in April of 2013 we were experimenting with the asynchronous rendering of web pages in a headless browser (specifically PhantomJS) to avoid some of the limitations we’d encountered with our crawler software. While doing so it occurred to us that if we were taking the time to actually render a page in a browser, why not generate and store screenshots?

As we had no particular use-case in mind they were simply stored in a flat file system, the filename being the Epoch time at which they were rendered, e.g:


There’s an obvious flaw here: the complete lack of any detail as to the provenance of the image. Unfortunately that wasn’t quite obvious enough and after approximately 15 weeks and 1,118,904 screenshots we changed the naming scheme to something more useful, e.g:

The above now includes the encoded URL and the epoch timestamp. This was again changed one final time, replacing the epoch timestamp with a human-readable version, e.g:

Despite a more sensible naming convention we were still left with a large number of files sitting in a directory on disk which could not be stored along with our crawled content and as a consequence of this, could not be accessed by normal channels.

A bit better?
A simple solution was to store the images in WARC files (ISO 28500—the current de facto storage format for web archives). We could then permanently archive them alongside our regular web content and access them in a similar fashion. However, the WARC format is designed specifically for storing web content, i.e. a resource referenced by a URL. Our screenshots, unfortunately, didn’t really fit this pattern. Each represented the Webkit rendering of a web page, actually likely to be the result of any number of web resources, not just the single HTML page referenced by the site’s root URL. We therefore did what anyone does when faced with a conundrum of sufficient brevity: we took to Twitter.

The WARC format contains several types of record which we potentially could have used: response, resource, conversion and metadata. The resource and response record types are intended to store the “output of a URI-addressable service” (thanks, @gojomo). Although our screenshots are actually rendered using a webservice, the URI used to generate them would not necessarily correspond to that of the original site, thus losing the relationship between the site and the image. We could have used a further metadata record to tie the two together but others (thanks to @tef and @junklight) had already suggested that a metadata record might be the best location for the screenshots themselves. Bowing to conventional wisdom, we opted for this latter method.

WARC-type: metadata
As mentioned earlier, screenshots are actually rendered using a PhantomJS-based webservice —the same webservice used to extract links from the rendered page. It is at this point worth noting that when rendering a page and outputting details of all requests/responses made/received during said rendering, PhantomJS by default returns this information in HTTP Archive (HAR) format. Although not specifically a formal standard, HAR has become the almost de facto method for communicating HTTP transaction information (most browsers will export data about a page in this format).

The HAR format permits information to be communicated not only about the page, but about each of the component resources used to create that page (i.e. the stylesheets, Javascript, images, etc.). As part of each response entry—each pertaining to one of the aforementioned resources—the HAR format allows you to store the actual content of that response in a “text” field, e.g:


Unfortunately, this is where the HAR format doesn't quite meet our needs. Rather than storing the content for a particular resource we need to store content for the rendered page—potentially the result of several resources and thus not suited to a response record.

Thankfully though, the HAR format does permit you to record information at a page level:


Better still…
Given the above we decided to leverage the HAR format by combining elements from the content section of the response with those of the page. There were two things we realised we could store:

1. As initially desired, an image of the rendered page.
2. The final DOM of the rendered page.

With this latter addition, it occured to us that the final representation of a HTML page—thanks to client-side Javascript altering the DOM—might differ from that which the server originally returned. As this final representation was the version which PhantomJS used to render the screenshot it made sense to attempt to record that too. In order to distinguish this final, rendered version from content of the HAR’s corresponding response record the name was amended to renderedContent.

Similarly named, we stored the screenshot of the whole, rendered page under a new element, renderedElements:


Given that we were trying to store a single screenshot, storing it in an element which is firstly, plural and secondly, an array, might seem a questionable choice. PhantomJS has one further ability that we decided to leverage for future use: the ability to render images of specific elements within a page.

In the course of a crawl there are some things we can't (yet) archive—videos, embedded maps, etc. However, if we can identify the presence of some non-archivable section of a page (an iframe which references a Google Map, for instance), we can at least render an image of it for later reference.
For this reason, the whole-page screenshot is simply referenced by its CSS selector (“:root”), enabling us to include a further series of images for any part of the page.

About those jpgs…
Currently, all screenshots are stored in the above format, in WARCs and will be ingested alongside regularly-crawled data. The older set of JPEGs on disk were converted, using the URL and timestamp in the filename, to the above HAR-like format (obviously lacking details of other resources and the final DOM which had been lost) and added to a series of WARC files.

The very earliest set of images, those simply stored using the Epoch time, are regrettably left as an exercise for future workers in Digital Preservation.

by Roger G. Coram, Web Crawl Engineer, The British Library