THE BRITISH LIBRARY

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Sound and moving images from the British Library

Introduction

Discover more about the British Library's 6 million sound recordings and the access we provide to thousands of moving images. Comments and feedback are welcomed. Read more

19 August 2019

Recording of the week: securing the right to read

This week's selection comes from Josie Wales, Rights Clearance Officer for Unlocking our Sound Heritage.

Along with many other libraries around the world, the British Library celebrated LGBTQ+ Pride this summer, with staff from St Pancras and Boston Spa joining the parades in York and London.

This Recording of the Week takes us back to 1985, when Pride was a very different kind of event with a much stronger political tone. With around 10,000 people in attendance, the 1985 march was considered to be the biggest to date. In comparison, an estimated 1.5 million people gathered in central London to mark the annual parade this year.

This recording comes from a collection of brief street interviews conducted at the 1985 Pride March, through which we can gain an insight into the atmosphere of the event and the thoughts and preoccupations of those attending. A recurring concern were the raids and seizure of imported books by UK Customs and Excise, which most famously involved independent bookseller Gay‚Äôs the Word in Bloomsbury, but also affected other organisations that sold or distributed gay and lesbian reading material. More than one hundred imported titles were deemed ‚Äėindecent or obscene‚Äô under the 1876 Customs Consolidation Act, and confiscated.

Photograph of rows of books in a bookshopPhoto of neatly stacked books placed in front of a wall of bookshelves by Jessica Ruscello on Unsplash. Click here to view image credit.

In this short clip, a marcher from the Gay Christian Movement, a charity founded in 1976, describes the impact  of this state censorship and the expensive legal battle against it, and shares their thoughts on our right as people in a free society to read and, most importantly, to choose what we read.

Securing the right to read (C456/121)

Both the Gay Christian Movement and Gay’s the Word faced charges of conspiring to import indecent material, but mounted successful opposition to these acts of repression with the strong support of both authors and publishers and the wider community of readers.

Technology has altered the way in which many of us engage with and access reading material, but the sense of community and solidarity that can be created through literature, particularly for LGBTQ+ and other marginalised populations, remains just as important. This theme will be explored over several events at the British Library in the upcoming season, including Banned Books Week in September, which examines censorship and other barriers to self-expression. More information and tickets can be found on our events page.

Discover more LGBTQ history at the British Library.

This recording belongs to the Hall Carpenter Oral History Archive, which has been digitised as part of the British Library's Unlocking our Sound Heritage project

Follow @BLSoundHeritage, @BL_OralHistory and @soundarchive for all the latest news. 

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15 August 2019

Napoléon Bonaparte

First Consul Bonaparte by Antoine-Jean Gros c. 1802

First Consul Bonaparte by Antoine-Jean Gros c. 1802

By Jonathan Summers, Curator of Classical Music

In May of this year I wrote a blog on the 250th anniversary of the birth of Arthur Wellesley, Field Marshall His Grace the Duke of Wellington. 

His enemy at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napol√©on Bonaparte, was also born in 1769, on 15 August, 250 years ago today. 

Napoleon crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David 1800

Napoléon crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David 1800

Finding a recording that provides a direct link to Napol√©on Bonaparte is not easy, but there is one.  Napol√©on raised the fortunes of his family so that his youngest brother, J√©r√īme-Napol√©on Bonaparte (1784-1860) became Jerome I, King of Westphalia and later Prince of Montfort.

J√©r√īme‚Äôs second son was Napol√©on Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte known as Napol√©on-J√©r√īme Bonaparte (1822-1891).  His cousin Emperor Napol√©on III, to whom he was a close adviser, gave him the title of Prince Napol√©on in 1852 (as well as third Prince of Montfort amongst other appellations). 

Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte by Hippolyte Flandrin

Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte by Hippolyte Flandrin 1860

Plon-Plon, as Prince Napoléon was known, was pretender to the throne, and upon the death of the Prince Imperial, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (1856-1879) he became the most senior member of the large and confusingly named Napoléon family. However, the Prince Imperial’s will decreed that Plon-Plon should not succeed, but that his son Victor be the next head of the family causing a rift between father and son.

Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte by Roger Fenton

Photograph of Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte by Roger Fenton 1855

It was this first nephew of Napol√©on that was recorded shortly before his death by Edison‚Äôs agent Colonel Gouraud in 1890.  Gouraud introduces the Prince who speaks in French.  Then some ladies of the court are introduced, the last probably being La Marquise de Saint-Paul, who was Marie Charlotte Diane Feydeau de Brou (1848-1943) a noted pianist who played Beethoven‚Äôs Piano Concerto No. 3 at a charity concert in the Salle Erard in 1884 and who counted Saint-Sa√ęns, Widor and Massenet among her friends.  Only the voice of the Marquise de St Paul seems to have survived on the cylinder.

George Gouraud from Vanity Fair 13 April 1889

George Gouraud from Vanity Fair 13th April 1889

Prince Napoleon 1890

While we can hear the actual voice of Napol√©on Bonaparte‚Äôs nephew recorded 130 years ago, Abel Gance‚Äôs epic five and a half hour film about the great Frenchman from 1927 is silent.  Silent as far a dialogue is concerned, but Carl Davis skillfully uses the music of Beethoven and others to bring the film to life. 

The connection between Napol√©on and Beethoven is well known ‚Äď as the original dedicatee of the Eroica Symphony, the composer captured the spirit of Napol√©on‚Äôs forceful personality in his music.  You can read more about it in a blog I wrote on Felix Weingartner‚Äôs recording of the work.

Recording from the Alan Cooban collection digitised with funds from the Saga Trust

For all the latest news follow @BL_Classical

12 August 2019

Recording of the week: women conscientious objectors of WW2

This week's selection comes from Vikki Greenwood, Audio Project Cataloguer for Unlocking our Sound Heritage.

C880 is a fabulously intriguing collection of interviews, conducted by Rena Feld, of twenty-nine women who either were or are conscientious objectors. Their reasons varied ‚Äď religious, moral, political ‚Äď but they held firm in the belief that war, for any reason, was intrinsically wrong.

Before I began listening to this collection, my knowledge of conscientious objectors during the Second World War was limited. I just knew they were men.

Weirdly, the concept of women conscientious objectors never occurred to me, simply for the reason that they were exempt from conscription. What I didn’t know though, was that any single woman between the ages of 20 and 30 could be called upon to report for war work.[1]

British Women's Land Army recruitment posterBritish Women's Land Army recruitment poster, depicting a woman with pitchfork, captioned 'For a healthy, happy job join the Women's Land Army', circa 1940 (via Wikimedia Commons)

Some found that this was in direct opposition to their personal beliefs and refused. The results varied from fines to job loss and for some, like Barbara Roads (C880/02), imprisonment. And then there are others, like Angela Sinclair-Loutit (C880/23) who worked in war hospitals during air raids.

All of the interviews in this collection have some great stories behind them. They really highlight what living and working during WW2 was like, as seen through the eyes of people who just wanted peace. However, I would like to talk about just one of these women.

Enter Diana McClelland (C880/04).

Diana McClelland  (C880/04)

Diana McClelland was a physiotherapist, so exempt from war work summons, who specialised in treating children. From her interview, it’s not clear whether or not she actually managed to register as a conscientious objector, but she definitely wanted to.

During the Battle of Britain, there was a Government supported organisation called the Children‚Äôs Overseas Reception Board (C.O.R.B). This group evacuated children to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, with the plan that when the war was over they would return home to their families.[2] 

In 1940, in her own words, Diana just wanted a short holiday to Canada. So, she boarded a C.O.R.B ship as a volunteer to accompany the children. Unfortunately, she boarded the SS Volendam and never made it to Canada.[3]

Auxiliary Territorial Services recruitment posterAuxiliary Territorial Services (ATS) recruitment poster (The National Archives via Wikimedia Commons)

Spoiler alert: she did make it to Glasgow and none of the kids on board were lost.

The ship was torpedoed by the German submarine U-60, and the passengers and crew had to be evacuated and rescued by the accompanying ships. She gives quite a frank description of the events; the ship listing, waiting for the lifeboats, of the crew shouting in Dutch and the children oblivious to the danger. According to the captain, it was the most orderly evacuation he‚Äôd ever overseen, something he attributed to the passengers not knowing Dutch. 

When Diana McClelland returned to Glasgow, holiday attempt foiled, she was asked if she would be willing to try again.

Naturally, she said yes.

The only reason she didn’t was because by the time she was meant to sail, the SS City of Benares had also been attacked, this time with a large number of casualties.[4]

I won't lie, if I’d been on a torpedoed ship I don’t think I’d be willing to run the risk again. No matter how pretty Canada is. Which I suppose means these women were braver than I’ll ever be, and I admire that.

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[1] Women of the Second World War https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-women-of-the-second-world-war

[2] National Archives Catalogue https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C493

[3] BBC WW2 People’s Archive newspaper https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/34/a4297034.shtml

[4] ‚ÄúRemembering the SS City of Benares tragedy 70 years on‚ÄĚ by Michelle Murphy, BBC News, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-merseyside-11332108

Follow @BLSoundHeritage and @soundarchive for all the latest news.

This recording has been digitised as part of the library's Unlocking our Sound Heritage project.

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