Calendar page for May from the Bedford Hours, France (Paris), c. 1410-1430, Add MS 18850, f. 5r
All is lovely and bright in these calendar pages for May, in keeping with the joys of this most splendid of months.
Detail of miniatures of a man going hawking and the zodiac sign Gemini, from the calendar page for May, Add MS 18850, f. 5r
At the bottom of the folio is a typical ‘labour’ for May, albeit one in keeping with the aristocratic emphasis of this manuscript. On the left is a miniature of a man hawking, clad in luxurious clothing (note particularly the gold-embroidered stockings he is sporting). He rides a gray horse through a rural landscape with a castle in the distance. A similar landscape can be found to the right, where two blonde androgynous figures embrace, for the zodiac sign Gemini. They stand behind a gilded shield, which has been adorned by pricking in an excellent example of gold work.
Detail of a marginal roundel of the seven Pleiades, from the calendar page for May, Add MS 18850, f. 5r
The rubrics at the bottom of the folio add another dimension of understanding to the other miniature roundels for this month. On the upper right of this folio is a painting of the seven Pleiades, the mythological daughters of the titan Atlas and a sea-nymph. The eldest of these daughters is Maia (labelled Maya on the painting), who was the mother of Mercury (Hermes). The rubric informs us that the month of May is named after May, ‘because the aforesaid Mercury is called the god of eloquence and the master of rhetoric and marketing’ (‘merchandise’). This must certainly be a very early use of that latter term!
Calendar page for May, Add MS 18850, f. 5v
The emphasis on aristocratic and/or divine love continues on the following folio. The rubrics on this folio describe how Honour was married to Reverence, a marriage we can see witness by a group of praying men. Below this is a scene depicting ‘how the ancient nobles governed the people and the queens loved them’. A very pleasant image indeed!
Detail of marginal roundels of the marriage of Honour and Reverence and the governance of a city, from the calendar page for May, Add MS 18850, f. 5v
- Sarah J Biggs